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[资料]地籍与地籍管理概述
作者:成都新瑞测绘  来源:新瑞测绘  浏览:1868次  更新:2009-10-11 13:12:03

第一节 地籍与地籍管理概述
   一、地籍
   1.地籍的概念
   地籍是指由国家监管的、以十地权属为核心、以地块为墓础的土地及其附着物的权属、位置、数量、质量和利用现状等土地基本信息集合的数据、表册和图册。即地籍就是土地的户籍。
   土地基本信息的集合,简称地籍信息,包含地籍数据集、地籍图集和地籍簿册。
   地籍数据集:它主是用数字形式描述十地及其附着物的位置、数量、质量、利用现状等要素,如面积册、界址点坐标册、房地产评价数据等。
   地籍图集:它主要是用图的形式来表达地籍信息,即用图的形式直观地描述土地和附着物之间的相互位置关系,它包括地籍图、专题地籍图、宗地图等。
   地籍簿册:它主要用表册的形式对土地及其附着物的位置、法律状态、利用状况等基本状况进行文字描述,如地籍调查表、各种相关文件等。
   它们之间通过特殊的标识符(关键字)连接成一个整体。这个标识符就是通常所说的地块号(宗地号或地号)。
   上述三部分主要解决了土地及其附着物的五大问题:
   第一,土地及其附着物“是准的”,具体指权属主与土地及其附着物之间的法律关系。
   第二,土地及其附着物“在哪里”,具体指土地及其附着物的窄间位置,一般用数据(坐标)和地籍编号进行描述。
   第三,土地及其附着物“有多少”,具体指对土地及其附着物量的描述,如十地面积,房屋栋数、建筑面积、土地和房屋的价值或价格等。
   第四,土地及其附着物取得、建造发生“在什么时候”,即时态性问题。
   第五,土地及其附着物“怎么样”,怎样取得这些权利的,对土地及其附着物是怎样利用的,目前的现状如何等。
   1.地籍的内容
(1)文字型地籍资料:包括地籍控制测量成果、地籍簿册、登记卡、地名集等。
   (2)图形地籍资料:包括地籍图、宗地草图、宗地图等。
   (3)人文资料:包括人口状况、教育状况、文化与公共设施等。
   (4)自然资源资料:包括能源、环境、水系、植被等。
   (5)经济资料:包括工矿、市场、金融、商业等。
   二、地籍管理
   1.地籍管理的概念
   地籍管理是国家为了建立地籍和研究土地的权属、自然状况、经济状况等土地的基本信息,建立完整的地籍图、簿册,而按统一的方法、要求和程序实施的一系列行政、经济、法律和技术工作措施体系。地籍管理的对象是作为资源和资产双重职能的土地,它的核心是土地的权属管理。
   2.地籍管理的内容
   现阶段,我国地籍管理的主要内容包括:
   1)土地调查
   土地调查是为查清土地的数量、质量、分布、利用和权力状况而进行的调查。在不同发展阶段,土地调查的侧重点是不一样的。土地调查一般可分为土地利用现状凋查、土地条件调查和地籍调查,土地利用现状调查主要是以县为单位,以上地利用状况为主要内容的调查;土地条件调查是对土地的土壤、植被、地貌、气象、水文等自然条件及对土地投入产出、收益、交通、位置等社会条件的调查;地籍调查是以土地权属、位置、类别、等级、地界和面积为主要内容的调查,它包括土地权属调查和地籍测量两个部分。
   2)土地登记
   土地登汜是依照国家有关法律对土地的所有权、使用权进行确认,依法实行土地权属的申请、审核、登记造册、颁发证书的一项法律措施。目前,我国依照法律规定,主要开展国有土地所有权、集体土地所有权、集体土地使用权和上地他项权力的登记,土地资料一经登记后便具有法律效力。
   3)土地统计
   土地统计是国家对土地的数量、质量、分布、利用和权属状况进行统计、汇总、分析和提供土地统计资料的制度。
   4)土地分等定级与估价
   土地分等定级估价是在土地利用分类的基础上,根据土地的自然、经济条件,进一步确定各类土地的等级和基准地价。土地分等定级为合理组织上地利用、制定土地利用规划、合理征收土地税,确定土地补偿标准提供了科学依据。地价评估为深化土地使用制度改革、规范地产市场,以及与其相适应的土地登记制度等奠定了基础。
   5)地籍档案管理
   地籍档案管理是对土地调查、分等定级、登记、统计各类工作中形成的各种历史记录、文件、图册进行收集、整理、鉴定、保管、统计、提供利用等各项工作的总称。地籍档案管理是土地管理的基础性工作,是建立、健全各项土地管理制度的基础。

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section cadastral cadastral management with an overview of
1, cadastral
1. The concept of cadastral
Cadastral refers to regulation by the state to 10 land ownership as the core, in order to block the tomb of Chu ownership of the land and its attachments, location, quantity, quality and utilization of basic information such as collection of land data, lists, and Atlas. Is the land of cadastral residence.
A collection of basic information of land, referred to as cadastral information, including cadastral data sets, cadastral atlas and cadastral books.
Cadastral data set: it describes the main is in digital form and the attachments 10 to the location, quantity, quality, utilization status and other factors, such as the area of books, Boundary point coordinates volumes, the real estate assessment data.
Cadastral Atlas: it is mainly used to express the map in the form of cadastral information, that is, with the diagram in the form of an intuitive description of the land and the attachments between the position relationship, which includes the cadastral maps, thematic cadastral maps, were maps.
Cadastral books: it is mainly used in the form of lists the location of the land and its attachments, legal status, utilization of the basic situation of textual descriptions, such as the cadastral survey form, all relevant documents.
Between them through a special identifier (keywords) to connect into a whole. This identifier is known as block number (number to number or lot number).
Is mainly to solve the above-mentioned three parts of the land and its attachments to the five key issues:
First, the land and fixtures "is a quasi-" and specifically refers to ownership of land and its owners and the legal relations between attachments.
Second, the land and its attachments, "where", specifically refers to the land and its attachments between the location of the narrow, generally with the data (coordinates) and cadastral numbers to describe it.
Third, the land and its attachments, "many", specifically refers to the description of the amount of land and its attachments, such as the 10 land area, housing a few buildings, building area, land and housing value or price.
Fourth, access to land and its attachments, the construction took place, "what time", real-time state issues.
Fifth, the land and its attachments "how" and how to secure these rights, the right is how to use the land and its attachments, the current status of such a system.
1. The contents of the cadastral
(1) text-based cadastral information: including cadastral control survey results, cadastral books, registration cards, sets, etc. names.
(2) graphic cadastral information: including cadastral maps, were to sketch, were maps.
(3) Humanities: This information includes demographics, education, culture and public facilities.
(4) Natural Resources Information: including energy, environment, water, vegetation and so on.
(5) economic data: including mining, marketing, finance and commerce.
2, Cadastral Management
1. The concept of Cadastral Management
Cadastral management of national cadastral and research in order to establish ownership of land, natural conditions, economic conditions such as land, basic information, the establishment of a complete cadastral maps, books, and according to uniform methods, requirements and procedures for the implementation of a series of administrative, economic, system of legal and technical work measures. Cadastral Management is targeted at dual functions as a resource and asset of the land, its core is the management of land ownership.
2. The contents of Cadastral Management
At this stage, China's main contents of cadastral management include:
A) Land Survey
The land survey was designed to identify the amount of land, quality, distribution, utilization and power conditions to conduct investigations. At different stages of development, land survey, the focus is not the same. Land Survey in general can be divided into the land-use withered investigation, land survey and cadastral survey conditions, the land-use survey is mainly based on counties as the unit, the above use of the position of the main content of the investigation; land condition survey is the land soil, vegetation , geomorphology, meteorology, hydrology and other natural conditions and the land input and output, income, transportation, location, and other social conditions of the investigation; cadastral survey of land ownership, location, type, grade, lot boundaries and the main content area of investigation, It includes the ownership of land survey and cadastral two parts.
2) Land Registration
Deng land in accordance with relevant national laws Bom land ownership, the right to use for confirmation, according to law of land ownership of the application, review, documentation, certificates of a legal measures. At present, in accordance with the law, mainly to carry out state-owned land ownership, collective ownership of land and collective land use rights and a right on to his registration, land data that have been registered after the force of law.
3) land statistics
Land statistics is the country's land quantity, quality, distribution, use and ownership status of statistics, compilation, analysis and provision of land statistics system.
4) The land classification and valuation of
Valuation of land classification in the land use classification based on the land, natural, economic conditions, further define the level of various land and benchmark land price. Land classification for the rational use of the organization to develop land use planning, rational land acquisition tax, determine the land compensation standards provide a scientific basis. Premium assessment to deepen the reform of land-use system, regulate the property market, as well as their corresponding land registration system laid the foundation.
5) The cadastral records management
Cadastral records management is a land survey, classification and grading, registration and statistical work in the formation of various types of historical records, documents, books collection, sorting, identification, storage, statistics, and provide access to other aspects of work in general . Cadastral records management is the basis for land management work, is to establish a sound basis for various land management systems.
 

 

 
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